Cell Studies

After the completion of extensive analytical and bench-top assessments of numerous energy converter chemistries, the performance of the system was tested in cancer cells.
Cancer cells were chosen from typical human and mouse cell lines and included cancer of the skin (melanoma), multiple variants of breast cancer, prostate cancer, airway cancer and colorectal cancer.  In addition, comparison tests were done in normal cells.
Multiple types of tests were conducted to look at the viability (WST) and survivability (Clonogenic) of cells after treatment,  as well as the mechanistic pathway of death as measured by flow cytometry or western blot.
Displayed below are several energy converter combinations, tested against multiple X ray conditions, showing consistent reduction in cell survival as compared to controls (no drug).
In addition to the viability or survival of the cell, the pathway of death was also studied. Specifically, markers for apoptosis, a programmed cell death that may be associated with the body’s ability to mount an immune response were looked at in multiple cell lines.
Displayed below are results looking for cleaved PARP, a sign of DNA damage to a cell. In particular, note that for the breast cancer cell types (BT474 and 4T1) there is a treatment effect (psoralen plus energy transducer), but in normal cells (HFF), no cleave PARP signal is detected, suggesting the treatment effects selects for cancer cells over normal cells.